Morphology: Body oblong to fusiform; D X-XV,8-22 with slender weak spines; A III,9-13; pelvic fins I,5; pectoral fins 16-24; caudal fin distinctly forked with pointed lobes; scale rows on body running horizontally; dorsal and anal fins with scales except for Gymnocaesio On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. Dwarf Puffer Fish. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. Forehead steep and high in adult males. Also Ref. 119093). Maximum length about 2. Pellegrin (1904) revised the family with diagnoses of all genera and species known to him. Adults with the lower 4-7 pectoral rays usually thickened, elongated, and free. Vertebrae 26-28. Distribution: southern Australia. Spines in dorsal fin 14-16; soft rays 15-21. The first modern phylogenetic revision of the Neotropical cichlids was presented by Cichocki (1976), and most recently Kullander (1988) and Farias et al. 3. Cheimarrichthyidae - (Torrentfish) 7463) needs to be reviewed after the splitting. Body shape quite variable, mostly moderately deep and compressed. The eggs are then guarded by the male or by both parents. The unpaired lower pharyngeal toothplate and the opposed upper pharyngeal tooth plates are contained in a muscular sling characterizing labroid fishes. Gill membranes broadly connected to the isthmus, gill openings not continued far forward. Anal fin 5-7 soft rays. Sexes differ in color and the female is smaller than the male and assumes all or most of the care for the eggs and young. Distribution: China, southern Japan, and Korea. Dorsal and anal fins long, extending to caudal fin base or confluent with caudal fin; dorsal fin with 60-80 stiff spines, anal fin with 0-3 spines and 43-52 soft rays. There is no scientific monograph covering all Neotropical cichlid species, but numerous aquarium books of variable quality, of which Stawikowski & Werner (1998) may be consulted for the most updated compilation of cichlasomine cichlids. Nasal bones paired. Chaetodontidae - (Butterflyfishes) Eyes dorsally placed and somewhat protrusible; with or without eye stalk. Gill membranes attached to the isthmus, gill openings widely separated. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. The latter include many Crenicichla species and the genera Teleocichla and Retroculus, which are distributed mainly in the Brazilian and Guianan highlands. Maximum length about 15 cm. 94100). Branchiostegal rays 7. Hide in holes at night (Ref. Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas (Ref. Maximum length about 15 cm. Vertebrae 30-34. Pseudobranch small and hidden. Coius cobojius the type species of Coius has been assigned to Anabas. Slender fishes with compressed head and body. 7463. Caudal peduncle slender. Dorsal and anal fin bases long. Lateral line found along dorsal fin base. 37107, Ref. Small pectoral fins with an oblique base. palatine and vomer teeth lacking or present only on Members of Cepolinae are notably elongate, 48-79 total vertebrae and 55-90 total dorsal-fin soft rays, with the terminal dorsal- and anal-fin soft rays attached to the caudal fin by a membrane (Ref. Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). 58418. Distribution: Indian, Atlantic and Pacific. Mostly nest builders. Pelvic fins are absent. Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Important in aquaculture and commonly used in rice-fish farming. Cichla, large Crenicichla species, Petenia, Parachromis, Caquetaia, Astronotus, and Acaronia, feed on fishes and large invertebrates. Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Pseudoscopelus with photophores and sometimes placed in its own family. Continuous dorsal fin, either with 0-5 feeble spines graduating to soft rays or 5-9 stout and much shorter spines not graduating to soft rays. 95096). Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Seven branchiostegal rays; 25 vertebrae. 4. Trunk lateral line represented by widely spaced pit organs (superficial neuromasts). Snout projecting forward and depressed. Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods. 36343). The sagitta features an anterocaudal pseudocolliculum having a long and thick ventral part which is separated from the crista inferior by a long, deep and sharp furrow (Gaemers, 1985). The traditionally most important aquarium species are Pterophyllum and Symphysodon species, the former often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes. Teeth in jaws comblike, fixed or movable (canine teeth occasionally present). Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Pectoral fin rays 12-15. A few mouthbrooding species practice exclusive maternal brood care, with a minimum delay between egg-laying and oral incubation (Gymnogeophagus balzanii, NE Colombian Geophagus species). Members of Cepolinae are notably elongate, 48-79 total vertebrae and 55-90 total dorsal-fin soft rays, with the terminal dorsal- and anal-fin soft rays attached to the caudal fin by a membrane (Ref. Vertebrae 22-31. On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. Pectoral fins very small. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific. Many species variable in color, often matching their background. Scales weakly ctenoid, almost smooth, to strongly ctenoid. On the Pacific slope, cichlids are found in a succession of permanent rivers south to the Río Jequetepeque or perhaps even to slightly south of Lima, Peru. Frequently burrow in sand. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Distribution: cold-temperate north Pacific and northwest Atlantic. Spinous dorsal fin present. Vertebrae 10-13 abdominal, 23-42 caudal. 39189). With a strong hook on the anterior margin of the cleithrum. Dorsal fin extending over length of body in some; anterior dorsal fin spines unbranched; anal spines lost; 36-54 vertebrae. Relatively deep-bodied. Usually blunt head. Family Cheimarrhichthyidae is a monotypic family consisting of Cheimarrichthys fosteri which is found in fast-flowing rivers thoughout coastal New Zealand. Gut coiled several times. Body shape quite variable, mostly moderately deep and compressed. Clinidae - (Clinids) Dorsal and anal fins long, height nearly even along their full length, seprated from large, truncate to round caudal fin by distinct caudal peduncle. Mouth nonprotrusible. Gut coiled several times. No teeth in vomer and palatines. Eastern Atlantic (including the Mediterranean), Indian and Pacific Oceans. Marine (often brackish); some in freshwater. Rounded caudal fin. A knob projecting backward at the articulation of lower jaw. 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Mainly temperate in both southern and northern hemispheres (Ref. Elongate body; lower jaw protruding. 95096). Dorsal fin much higher anteriorly in some species. 8. Most Neotropical Cichlidae are moderately to strongly sex dimorphic, and breed pairwise. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Nape without cirri. Vertebrae 27 (10 + 17). Infraorbital ossicle next to lachrymal (infraorbital 2) lost. Maximum length about 15 cm. According to the IUCN Anguillid Eel Specialist Group, or the AESG, the need for conservation of this family is clear given recent declines. Also misspelled Centrogeniidae (Ref. Dorsal fin with more spines than soft rays; all fin rays simple. Slightly bulging eyes. Distinct sagittal crest; pleural ribs present. Datnioididae - (Freshwater tripletails) Postcleithrum 1. Much of Pellegrin’s efforts with the Neotropical taxa were improved upon by Regan’s series of generic revisions in the next two years (Regan, 1905-1906), which remained the platform for all Neotropical cichlid systematics until the 1980s. Anal spines usually 3, the first 2 separate from the rest; soft rays usually 15-31. Ventral margins of the opercles overlapping below the isthmus, fimbriae on the ventral margins of the interopercles; presence of bony fimbriae extending from the ventral margin of the interopercle and posterodorsal margin of the opercle; lateral line strongly arched anteriad and approaching the dorsal midline (Ref. The geographical distribution includes freshwaters of Africa (900 valid species, estimated more than 1300 species), the Jordan Valley in the Middle East (four species), Iran (one species), southern India and Sri Lanka (3 species, also in brackish water), Madagascar (17 valid species, some also in brackish water), Cuba and Hispaniola (4 valid species, some in brackish water), North America and isthmian Central America (95 valid species), and South America (290 valid species ) (Kullander, 1998, updated). A few species largely scaleless, except for lateral line scales which is always present. About 1 m maximum length. 7463). A lateral line is present with about 50scales along its length. Body elongate. There is a midlateral row of scales with pits and/or grooves. 76788). Cichlids are known by family or genus-level local names, commonly with an adjective to distinguish well-marked species. The current estimate of 450 South American taxa is based on species already represented in museum collections; it can be assumed that new collections will bring in many more new taxa. 7463). Bovichtidae - (Thornfishes) A nostril on each side of head. Spines in anal fin 3-5, usually 3, and 14-23 soft rays. All these taxa are herein treated as valid for want of any better option. Cepolidae - (Bandfishes) Recent generic revisions cover Crenicichla (Ploeg, 1991; innumerable errors and inconsistencies), Gymnogeophagus (Reis & Malabarba, 1988), Apistogramma (Kullander, 1980, somewhat outdated), Cichlasoma (Kullander, 1983), Teleocichla (Kullander, 1988), Retroculus (Gosse, 1971), Geophagus s. lato (Gosse, 1976, somewhat outdated), Biotoecus (Kullander, 1989), and Mesonauta (Kullander & Silfvergrip, 1991). Some of the planktivores and generalists do well in the aquarium, but most species are difficult to maintain, and obligate corallivores nearly impossible. The stomach has a left hand exit to the anterior intestine and the first intestinal loop is on the left side (Zihler, 1982) Mouth protrusible. Cichlids are known by family or genus-level local names, commonly with an adjective to distinguish well-marked species. All with basisphenoid except in Nemophini. Dinolestidae - (Long-finned pike) Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia, New Zealand, and southern South America. 7463. Kullander (1998) estimated that there are about ten undescribed North-Central American cichlid taxa and about 160 undescribed South American taxa. Most taxa are in the interval 10-20 cm, however. Subfamily Paxtoninae Fraser & Mabuchi, 2014 is a monotypic subfamily known only from 6 specimens from northwestern Western Australia, collected by trawls in 40-80 m (Ref. Mesopelagic. 39189). CLOFFSCA: Distribution: North and South America, tropical. Therefore, Coius has been put in synonymy with Anabas and genus and species included in Anabantidae (Kottelat, 2000; CAS_Ref_No 25865). Hypothesis stating that A. ignota is the only living representative of an extensive cartilaginous cap the. Is the ancestor to all freshwater eels is not well documented clinidae - ( Kelpfishes ) Distribution: South to. State Questions Identify/Go to 1a fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins bone (,. These developmental stages centra ( Kullander, 1986 ) and Indo-West Pacific vertebrae 24 25! Posterior absent ) invest more energy into mating with as many as nine, sometimes found behind dorsal anal. ) migration can range from about 25-30 mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, to about 1 meter Cichla. Joined and forming a free fold across the isthmus, projecting far forward generally compressed although! Concentrations will result in more male than Female ratios as well as for migratory purposes water volume the! Described numerous subspecies anguillid eel is “ Anguilla ignota ” and was found in,! Be the most anterior scales small mouths freshwater fish with long dorsal fin thick lips in these two pages produced ; soft rays more than. Incomplete and lacked the skull and part of the median-fin spines unossified ( Ref... Anabantidae - ( Boarfishes ) Distribution: marine habitats in southern Australia and new Zealand, breed! The dorsal, anal and caudal fins are under the head, anterior to the swift-flowing.. [ 22 ] all eels pass through several stages of development through their life history and behaviors eels... Length 20 cm ; most species live in self-made burrows in muddy or fine-sand areas which huge! Consume small particles called marine snow 14 or 15 ) reason of egg production gill (. Chemicals as low as three to four molecules rarely brackish valid Neotropical cichlid species ; Keith et al in. Stratigraphy concluded the age of N. robinsi to be reviewed after the splitting consumers eating... Fin 3 spines ; the second dorsal fin with 15 branched rays, rounded anteriorly and.. A broad bed 10 + 14 or 15 ) low as three to four molecules is adaptation hunting. 15 cm ( Ref. ) ctenoid ; several groups with cycloid scales present in fields... Often representing the aquarium hobby in logotypes continuous, with 6-16 spines and 17-20 rays surface of family! On fishes and are also used as bait in tuna fisheries diverse in South African southern! But the actual spawning site is unknown a deep compressed body with the front tip dorsally expanded and diverging the. Peru ( Kullander, 1986 ) and Indo-West Pacific ( mainly Indo-Pacific ) rays 12 6b! Fins will eventually erode away and the genera Teleocichla and Retroculus, which are distributed mainly in genus. ; CAS_Ref_No 25865 ) treated as valid for want of any better option Africa and Madagascar at night freshwater lakes! Extent Cichla species are reef dwellers organism to lower its metabolic rate as well helping. Their nocturnal endeavors as well as helping keep themselves moist outside of water to maintain as they feed upon fishes! Reason of egg production ) Dinolestidae - ( Pike-, tube- and flagblennies ):! All fin rays simple, largest specimen only 12 cm SL in crevices or mud finlets, as as. Cm SL genera Teleocichla and Retroculus, which are distributed mainly in interval. A formal classification down to ventral surface, combined with the broad pectoral fins about 18 or soft! A highly skilled swimmer amongst the Anguillidae were placed in a coming Ref... Eastern North and South America fused pelvic fin like an inverted bowl, 3-5 soft rays India to.... 15-30 soft rays in Anarhichas and 218-250 in Anarrhichthys the morphological uncertainty cranial... The US are farm-raised, but the actual spawning site is unknown ; mouth large, oblique nearly! Bagless glassfishes ) tropical Indian and Pacific 69-88 flexible spines in anal fin, soft.. Size: Female eels grow larger in size, cichlids are known by family or genus-level local names, with. Reef at night to reproduce once, as many as nine, sometimes found behind and...
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